Friday, February 7, 2020
Law of Accounting Coursework question - Essay Example It is a well established principle that a contract can come into existence even if it is oral or has been concluded in an informal manner, however, it is important to note that there are certain conditions which must be satisfied for a legally binding contract to be existent. The starting point for the formation of a contract is that there must be an offer made and it should clearly not be an invitation to treat and subsequently there should be acceptance. The next aspect is that of the criterion of consideration, the intent to enter into legal relation the presence of certainty. For an effective evaluation of how a contract is to be concluded can be found in the case of Smith v Hughes1, whereby the subjective as well as the objective test was laid down so as to evaluate the existence of a valid and legally enforceable contract. The subjective test focuses on the intention of the parties who entered into the contract, while on the contrary the objective test looks into what had been said, done, not done by the parties and what the intention of saying or doing was. An important evaluation on the principles of offer and acceptance can be seen from the evaluation of Professor Atiyah, whereby it was reasoned that offer and acceptance is determined by of one of the methods which is Ã¢â¬Ëreason forwardsÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëreason backwardsÃ¢â¬â¢. Reason forwards takes into account of offer and acceptance and their existence at first and then goes on to reason out and conclude on the dispute at hand and as for reason backwards the most reasonable solution is made out and it then turns around to ascertain from that offer and acceptance. The definition offer is unequivocal willingness by the offeror that is the person making offer to be bound by certain terms and conditions subject to acceptance of the offeree that is the peron to whom the offer is made. There has been a clear distinction which has been drawn by the courts on the area of invitation to treat and offer , however, there have been times when the differentiating was a mere thin line. Invitation to treat has been defined as an expression of willingness to induce another party to enter into negotiations and to make an offer, however, the boundary is, the fact that it is conditional and is therefore not an offer. The case of (Fisher v Bell)2 clearly defined the fact that invitation to treat is merely an expression of willingness of one party to enter into negotiations with another party thereby hoping that eventually offer and acceptance would take place and a valid and legally enforceable contract would come into existence. The thin line and the distinguishing features between an invitation to treat and offer can be seen from the cases of of Gibson v Manchester City Council3 and Storer v Manchester City Council4. The facts in Gibson were that the treasurer in his letter to Mr. Gibson stated that the council was willing to sell Mr. Gibson the house and needed him to make a formal applic ation. The courts looked into the circumstances of the case and in particular the price factor and held to be an invitation to treat. Contrary to Gibson, in Storer the courts held that a valid contract had been created because of the fact that the transaction had moved one step further and was prior to exchange of contracts. Even though it was a very thin line the courts distinguished between the
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
The Critique of Critical Thinking Essay To think is already an achievement in itself, but to think critically is a lot better than settling with what one already know. To critically think enables the individual to explore new perspectives and world-views, contrary to a dogmatic stance on beliefs and thoughts. To think critically entails a deep and broader look into a subject or system of thought, that to expose an ideology is to not look on its only positive aspects but also to explore more on its adverseÃ and corresponding developments in that field. A dogmatic world-view will limit the intellect into a specific area of advocacy or belief and it rejects any idea that is outside or alien to the existing thought. This often results in a backward progression of intellectual capability since there is no room for exploration of different ideas. In addition, a restrained or limited intellectual capacity to understand more things does not ultimately guarantee a real grasp of truth. But through critical thinking, there are many accounts and views that may help in achieving a clear understanding of the truth. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In line with critical thinking is the ability to take into account other sentiments, world-views and opinions of different people and cultures, combining them into a synthesized argument. The main point of critical thinking is to necessarily limit the borders of thinking into a single belief but also reconsiders other individuals own sentiments and formulating a new idea. This also brings for an opportunity of discourse and not debate since in debate an idea must be defended rhetorically in order to prove its credibility. In discourse however, it consists of a discussion between different individuals with no use of any rhetoric method. The discussions are not limited to a side that would win but the main aim is to create or improve an idea or concept. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In summary, to think critically enables the individual to consider other opinions other than the self.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Music as an Indicative of the History of Puerto Rico :: Culture cultural History Puerto Rican Essays
Music as an Indicative of the History of Puerto Rico During Dr. Lise WaxerÃ¢â¬â¢s October 29th lecture she characterized "music" as being indicative of the history of a people, a way of establishing social relations, and being a forum for dialogue. However, upon a critical analysis of the claims within her lecture and the issues discussed within Ruth GlasserÃ¢â¬â¢s My Music is My Flag, I believe that modern studies of Puerto Rican popular culture reveal more about the present state of Puerto Rican identity than the historical subjects themselves. It is clear that above all else Puerto Rican musical history, from its evolution on the island and in the diaspora, was created and conditioned by the US colonial system. Therefore, any attempt to elevate its significance may be more of a classed-based attempt to elevate their social position within the context of colonized historical reality. Before embarking upon this analysis it is important to note that Ruth Glasser is not Puerto Rican. Although she is "a nice Jewish girl" studying the history of Puerto Rican music, the fact that she is not Puerto Rican does not exclude her from misinterpreting the significance of her findings (xv). From the onset of her analysis she presents herself in opposition to "the traditional historianÃ¢â¬â¢s" assumptions about Puerto Rican history. She claims that "many popular and scholarly assessments suggest that Puerto Rican musicians have left their own ostensibly meager musical resources behind and [have]Ã¢â¬ËmerelyÃ¢â¬â¢ adopted Cuban sounds" (3). This opinion, she claims, characterizes Puerto Rican musical culture as being "imported," meaning that it has no self-sustaining historical traditions of its own. Such a claim would also challenge Lise WaxerÃ¢â¬â¢s claims which characterize Puerto Rican music as a manifestation of Puerto Rican national history. Glasser in turn proceeds within her study to describe the numerous historical traditions of Puerto Rican music. Most prominent among these traditions is the fact that many of the early bands under early US colonial rule began as military bands during the First World War. Indeed, the US army band soldiers were examples of the first musical experience during the Puerto Rican Diaspora because their travels to Europe allowed some musician form "a particularly prominent part of the United States ArmyÃ¢â¬â¢s most famous musical ensembles. [For example] the 369th Infantry "Hellfighters" Band" (54). As professional musician these people benefitted greatly by gaining access to more traditional forms of musical skills.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Introduction: With the average age of working employees increasing, the amount of people covered under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) has also grown. With the rise in workers over the age of 40, there has been some indiscretion in regards to the training or lack of training made available to this group. This paper gives an in depth analysis of the findings of Todd J. Maurer and Nancy E. Rafuse in their article Learning, not litigating: Managing employee development and avoiding claims of age discrimination. The article addresses ways to avoid lack of training by creating an environment conducive to continuous learning which promotes employee growth and add value to the employer. The ways older workers have been denied and discouraged from training is explained as well as how the legal ramifications of these actions could hurt an organization. Because of the potential prevalence of age related discrimination, the definitions of terms, conditions and privileges of employment have been defined and may become increasingly actionable. Maurer and Rafuse detail how age discrimination can be avoided in training and development practices. Bringing change and evolution to and organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s training practices through the use of top-down management training in an attempt to change culture and policies, decisions about who is trained, the supervision of development and bringing awareness to the potential effects of stereotypes. Topic Discussion: Training and Development Opportunities Are Increasingly Important to TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s Workers Training and developmental activities are of paramount importance when it comes to keeping a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s workforce competent. For this reason it is important to not only implement training but to also vary the training exercised as there are many forms and people learn in different ways. A few examples listed by Maurer and Rafuse include (but are not limited to) correspondence courses, independent reading, viewing videotapes, technology-based training, job rotation, special committees, and coaching (Maurer & Rafuse, 111). Training becomes important to the older workforce as technological advances occur as well as other innovations alter the way that businesses operate. Because of the ever-changing workplace it is necessary for employees to receive training so that they may adapt and thrive in their working environments. It is not a lack of ability or ignorance to change that is hurting the aging population, it is a lack of employer-provided training that can prevent the growth and progression of an employee. This is why continuous learning has become a prominent factor in the careers of older workers. As business practices change the way an organization operates, the organization needs to increase the amount of training offered to its employees. If there is innovation in business practices then there needs to be innovation in training. In the text Employee Training and Development, Raymond A. Noe discusses Nokia and its definition of continuous learning and how it means that employers support employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ growth by providing them with the opportunity to develop themselves and to stay technologically current (Noe, 53). This type of environment, especially in a telecommunications company, is important to not only employee growth but also to company growth as the more employees who possess skill and knowledge will likely increase positive performance. The promotion of learning, not the discouragement of learning, will support the aging population and give them the tools necessary to succeed in the workplace bringing about commitment and prosperity to the organization (Noe, 53). Continuous training and learning need to be implemented because the workplace environment has evolved. Maurer and Rafuse allude to this by stating, Ã¢â¬Å"While mid- and late-career stages used to be viewed as periods of maintenance in which workers could avoid learning many new things, most workers now need to continuously learn and adaptÃ¢â¬ (Maurer & Rafuse, 112). Employees no longer have the ability to simply use what they know until they retire; employees are required to constantly experience gains in knowledge and skill to competitive and productive. The workplace is always changing and brings new challenges which increase the competition for jobs as employers want more knowledgeable and experienced employees. For this reason effectively using the aging workers by combining experience with new skills is in the best interest for organizations (Maurer & Rafuse, 113). Older workers denied access to training Not involving older workers, by failing to nominate, select, or inform them of opportunities to partake in training or development can be seen as a form of discrimination. While there is little documentation on this subject, published articles and literature have suggested that decision makers, whether that be an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s manager or a member of human resources, may deny additional training to older workers based on the idea that older workers cannot learn or do not want to learn. Also, if it is believed that an older worker will retire soon, decision makers may be unwilling to provide training to this employee under the assumption that it will reduce the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s returns on investments. In a study completed by the Department of Labor, 55-64 year old workers are only 1/3 as likely to complete training as their 35-44 year old co-workers (Maurer & Rafuse, 113). In general, organizations that do not place a high value on their older employees do not have active policies or programs in place to advance or develop these employees (Armstrong-Stassen, & Cattaneo). Fewer job growth opportunities are given to older workers as well. Instead of being given job opportunities that are complex, that promote acquiring new skills and learning about different jobs, or that include status or location changes, older workers may be given routine job assignments. While it is difficult to analyze whether this may be a result of discriminatory treatment, the combination of a denial of training and comparatively different treatment of younger works (ex: younger workers receive training while older workers are denied the same training) can be legally supported as age discrimination. Because of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s failure to provide training to an older worker, this can result in that employee being denied promotions, being terminated, or being demoted (Maurer & Rafuse, 112-113). It is important to keep in mind that employers are not required to provide training to older workers if systems (computer systems or machinery) have been upgraded Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËIf younger employees adapt without training, then older workers must alsoÃ¢â¬â¢ (Maurer & Rafuse, 113). Older workers discouraged from training A less obvious form of discrimination would be the discouragement or lack of support for older workers to receive training and development opportunities, which can negatively affect terms, conditions, or privileges of employment or the status of an employee. The idea that people change in unfavorable ways with age is a belief held by various individuals, and this belief can affect the perceived ability of older employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ learning abilities in the regards to the workplace (Maurer & Rafuse, 113). Employees aged 50 and older where described as being Ã¢â¬Ëinflexible, averse to change, and resistant to learning and understanding new technologiesÃ¢â¬â¢ in a survey featuring HR executives as the respondents (Maurer & Rafuse, 114). Organization behavior literature has suggested that negative stereotypes may indirectly affect the behavior of older workers by influencing their ideas of what is normal aging behavior; this can lead to older workers conforming to the expectations set by negative stereotypes. In a recent study, regression analysis reaffirmed that older workers who hold greater beliefs that fellow older workers lack the ability and/or desire to further develop their job knowledge or skills are also less likely to have any interest in receiving any training and development activities themselves (Maurer, et all, 15). The more that older workers are exposed to these negative stereotypes and/or perceived discrimination can reduce older workersÃ¢â¬â¢ self-confidence, pursuit of learning, self-esteem, personal control, job involvement, and job satisfaction. Within a legal context, the more subtle types of discrimination such as exposure to stereotypes, lack of encouragement and motivation, and lack of access to training and development opportunities are likely to be seen as hostile-environment or constrictive-discharge claims. Since hostile-environment claims require severe and pervasive harassment and constructive discharge claims require that working conditions are so intolerable that a reasonable person would resign, it is difficult to take action against subtle forms of age discrimination in regards to training and development in court (Maurer & Rafuse, 115). What will be Legally Actionable in the Future? Age-related effects on training and development opportunities could become increasingly actionable based on how the courts have defined the terms, conditions, and privileges of employment. In the future, training and development opportunities may become more closely related with job opportunities including promotions, demotions, hiring, transfers, and reductions in the work force. This means that training and development may become the variable that determines an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s success or failure (termination) within the workplace. Denying or discouraging older workers access to training or development opportunities would then been seen as more Ã¢â¬ËsevereÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëintolerable,Ã¢â¬â¢ which would lead to more legally actionable hostile-environment and constructive-discharge claims (Maurer & Rafuse, 115). Avoiding Age Discrimination Avoiding age discrimination in the allocation of training and development opportunities is not unlike other forms of discrimination. The best solution is to implement and follow human resource policies that mandate the use of job relevant criteria for decision making. It has also been shown that these same policies can increase the motivation to participate in learning by the workforce (Maurer & Rafuse, 116). There are four major areas in which managers need to evaluate their susceptibility to age discrimination litigation: culture and policies, decisions about training and development, supervision and support, and training managers on ADEA and the effects of stereotypes (Maurer & Rafuse, 116). Within these areas, it is important to focus on differences in access and encouragement. Culture and Policies Opportunities within a company must not be distributed based on anything except job related criteria. By establishing policies that avoid discrimination, a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s culture will reflect those values. First, human resource policies should specifically state that all decision must be free of discrimination including age biases. These policies must be in plain language and available to all employees. In addition, current policies must be evaluated to ensure there is no intentional or unintentional age discrimination. This examination will help avoid disparate treatment and impact. Culturally, managers must take an active role in disseminating information about opportunities and not rely on informal communication channels. One way to avoid discrimination is to encourage all employees to take part in training, job assignments and job rotations (Maurer & Rafuse, 117). Training & Development Decisions The decision making process for allocating the limited training and development opportunities must be established and described in policy. This will guide managers in making lawful choices. The focus should be on job and task related factors which are best for the company and the most defensible (Maurer & Rafuse, 117). Companies cannot allow managers to give vague reasons for their training decisions because it may be based on stereotypes and ageist assumptions. Often, older employees are thought to fear new technology and cannot learn new skills (Noe, 461-465). A good policy to implement is to ask for self-nominations when it is possible. This will help managers identify motivated employees and provide justification if it is later needed (Maurer & Rafuse, 117). All final decisions to determine which employee should receive training and development resources should be based on who has the ability to benefit from the additional investments. Valid selection and training HR practices not only benefit employee self-efficacy but also the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s performance from the macro perspective. Research has shown that a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s performance can significantly change, even within a single year, with job- related selection and training systems (Iddekinge, 2009). There should also be a monitoring and audits of all training decisions to ensure fair distribution. It is illegal to discriminate against women, minorities and people over 40 years old. However, ageist practices tend to do not have the same stigma that workplace racism or sexism carries (Maurer & Rafuse, 117). Supervision and Support Developmental Relationships Beyond having policies that layout proper training and development protocol, managers need to recognize the importance of supporting and encouraging all employees equally. Companies might consider making managers responsible for meeting training and development involvement goals (Maurer & Rafuse, 118). Higher level managers should be receiving feedback from employees on the status of their development needs. This could be used as part of an evaluation that measures a managerÃ¢â¬â¢s effectiveness (Maurer & Rafuse, 118). Having open channels of communication between managers and subordinates is necessary to ensure no one feels left behind. Managers can use performance evaluations to encourage more training, get feedback and set goals for career development. Older workers feeling or becoming obsolete because of a lack in development and training can lead to poor performance. Part of the career development plan can be an introduction to new technologies as they become part of the required skills (Noe, 461-465). One factor that managers can use with resource allocation to older workers is plans for retirement if communicated by the employee (Maurer & Rafuse, 117). To further open communication channels and increase opportunities, companies can offer access to careers counselors and programs such as mentoring, apprenticeships and learning networks (Maurer & Rafuse, 118). Train Managers on ADEA The final step in avoiding age discrimination and possible litigation is to train managers and employees on The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA). It would be a good investment for companies to hold training sessions on age-related stereotypes and discrimination regularly (Maurer & Rafuse, 118). There should be a strong emphasis on how stereotypes can affect managerial judgments. These trainings can be extended to employees and new hire orientations to avoid an ageist jokes and criticism which can create a hostile work environment. These sessions are a good time to reinforce a zero-tolerance discrimination policy and by doing so can portray a good faith effort which can help limit liability during litigation. Overall, managers need to understand that older workers are as differentiated and diverse as any other group. Their abilities and motivation to continuously learn and develop vary by the individual. Managers cannot assume retirement age or fail to see an older workerÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to grow and be a good investment for the company. Class Questions: * Can anyone think of new technology that can improve or promote employing training and development? * Can you think of ways to encourage, instead of discourage, older workers to take advantage of learning and development opportunities? * What are possible unintentional ageist assumptions in the workplace? Bibliography: Iddekinge, Chad. Ã¢â¬Å"Effects of Selection and Training on Unit-Level Performance.Ã¢â¬ Journal of Applied Psychology. 94.4 (2009): 829-843. Print. Marjorie Armstrong-Stassen, & Cattaneo, J. (2010). The effect of downsizing on organizational practices targeting older workers. The Journal of Management Development, 29(4), 344-363. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02621711011039150 Maurer, Todd J., and Nancy E. Rafuse. Ã¢â¬Å"Learning, Not Litigating: Managing Employee Development And Avoiding Claims Of Age Discrimination.Ã¢â¬ Academy Of Management Executive 15.4 (2001): 110-121. Business Source Premier. Web. 9 Oct. 2012. Noe, R. A.. Employee Training & Development. . 4th. New York, NY: Irwin Professional Pub, 2008. 461-465. Print. Todd J. Maurer, Frank G. Barbeite, Elizabeth M. Weiss, Michael Lippstreu, (2008),Ã¢â¬ New measures of stereotypical beliefs about older workersÃ¢â¬â¢ ability and desire for development: Exploration among employees age 40 and overÃ¢â¬ , Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 23 Iss: 4 pp. 395 Ã¢â¬â 418 United State Senate: Special Committee on Aging. (2011). Retrieved from website: http://aging.senate.gov/issues/olderworkers/index.cfm
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Is the deception of consumers worth making a profit? The Ford Pinto, popular car of the 1970s, made a profit off of a vehicle that endangered the lives of hundreds of people. In his essay Ã¢â¬Å"Pinto MadnessÃ¢â¬ Mark Dowie, author and Pulitzer Prize nominee, exposed the unethical decisions made by Ford Motor Company. When it came to their customerÃ¢â¬â¢s safety and profit for the company, Ford made a decision that led to consequences their customers had to pay the price for. Should the business be held accountable for these actions? In his essay Ã¢â¬Å"The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its ProfitÃ¢â¬ Milton Friedman, powerful economist, discusses what a business should prioritize in the economic system. Friedman declares what a business is responsible for and the guidelines they must follow. Due to FriedmanÃ¢â¬â¢s view, he would not have condoned the actions and decisions that the executives at Ford Motor Company took. Friedman argues that the only responsibility a business has to society is to act in its own self-interest to create revenue and remain successful in the economic system (158).Created to make a profit by providing a task or service, a business must Ã¢â¬Å"use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profitsÃ¢â¬ (Friedman 164). A business could use any tactic to gain a profit as long as they remained Ã¢â¬Å"within the rules of the gameÃ¢â¬ (Friedman 164). The rules implied that no deception or fraud could take place while the corporation obtained their profit.Show MoreRelatedThe Social Responsibility Of Business932 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesA corporation does do business within a vacuum; rather exist as part of larger collective framework of society, stakeholders and a global business community. I believe that corporations which are profitable, and promote moral and ethical standards are the benchmark of success; additionally, corporations bear a great social r esponsibility to the society it exists within, an simply working within Ã¢â¬Å"the basic rules of society, both those embodied in law and those embodied in ethical customÃ¢â¬ is not enoughRead MoreBusiness and Social Responsibility1140 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWhen a business gets incorporated regardless of the business size and the nature of profession requires an adequate execution methods for being successful and to achieve its goals. Some of these goals can be short-term or long-term, depends on the nature of business. Likewise, these execution methodologies can be vary time to time as the corporate needs to satisfy different groups of people such as : top hierarchy stakeholders, staffs ,shareholders, and even non-related business groups such as environmentalistsRead MoreThe Social Responsibility Of Business1422 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe business be held accountable for these actions? In his essay Ã¢â¬Å"The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its ProfitÃ¢â¬ Milt on Friedman, powerful economist, discusses what a business should prioritize in the economic system. Friedman declares what a business is responsible for and the guidelines they must follow. Due to FriedmanÃ¢â¬â¢s view, he would not have condoned the actions and decisions that the executives at Ford Motor Company took. Friedman argues that the only responsibility a businessRead MoreThe Social Responsibility Of Business1042 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCorporate Social Responsibility is defined as a business preparation that involves participating in creativities that help society. Friedman: The Social Responsibility of Business is to increase its profits. Milton Friedman argues that the only social responsibility a business has is to itself Ã¢â¬â mainly to its profits, and therefore, its stakeholders. The business management in charge of a company works for the organization and eventually for the stakeholders. This person is responsible for carryingRead MoreThe Social Responsibility of a Business647 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesÃ¯ » ¿The Social Responsibility of Business: The role of business in the society became a major aspect across business after Milton Freedman wrote the most provocative article in 1970. As an economist, Freedman stated that the main purpose of businesses is to generate profits for its shareholders. Furthermore, he argued that companies with responsible attitudes were likely to encounter increased binding constraints unlike those that lacked these attitudes, resulting in them becoming less competitiveRead MoreThe Social Responsibility Of Business787 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The economist and Nobel laureate Milton FriedmanÃ¢â¬â¢s article published in The New York Times Magazine in 1970 titled, Ã¢â¬Å"The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits.Ã¢â¬ (NYTimes, 1970) set tone for companies all across the country and all over the world. Companies start to turn in profits that shattered all charts and stock markets. Beginning in 1960s to 1990s, Capitalism had won the cold war with its arch rival the Soviet Union had withered away into the oblivion and the companiesRead MoreThe Social Responsibility Of Business2053 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesevolution-taking place; now the level of a business social responsibility has become increasingly integrated into modern business practices. This focus has seen both advantages and disadvantages to the business. However, to what extent has the use of the greater focus of a business social responsibility affected its competitive advantage in its marketplace. CSR is described as; Ã¢â¬Å"the principle that companies can and should make a positive contribution to society, of managing the social, environmental and economicRead MoreSocial Responsibility Of A Business1444 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesareas of business and nonprofit management. However, CohenÃ¢â¬â¢s article on social responsibility drew a lot attention from other scholars like Friedman. In view of this, this paper will discuss and define the concept of social responsibility of a business to its workers, stakeholders, and society; how the perspectives align with that of Drucker; comparing CohenÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion with that of Friedman and finally determines which of the two individualÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion best aligns with the current business climate promotingRead MoreThe Social Responsibility Of Business Essay1959 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesagree or disagree with the following quotation: Ã¢â¬Å"There is one and only one social responsibility of businessÃ¢â¬âto use its resources and engage i n activities designed to increase its profits so long as it stays within the rules of the game, which is to say engages in free and open competition, without deception and fraud.Ã¢â¬ Milton Friedman, a Nobel Prize winning economist. In other words, the social responsibility of business is to make a profit. I do not agree with the following quote by Milton FriedmanRead MoreThe Social Responsibility Of Business1463 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn his paper titled The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase Its ProfitsÃ¢â¬ , Milton Friedman addresses the key issue of weighing social responsibility against profit maximization for shareholders. This conflict is the basis for FriedmanÃ¢â¬â¢s whole paper, as he explores the two sides of the situation. In order to set up his argument, Friedman lays down a framework by explicitly stating a certain premise. This is that businessman view Ã¢â¬Å"social responsibilityÃ¢â¬ and profit as not being mutually
Friday, December 27, 2019
It was the Compromise of 1877 that brought reconstruction in the south to an end. The compromise called for the withdraw of federal troops in the southern states, promised that a southern would be appointed as Postmaster General, offered the south federal subsidies, and in return, Rutherford Hayes would become president, and reconstruction would officially be over (Peskin). The closing of one chapter lead to a new one: the birth of modern America., the Gilded Age. Major changes were taking place in the country, almost all being a result of the rapid industrialization that was taking place. Cities thrived with people, most seeking out work. Inventions flourished, light flooded the streets with the widespread availability of electricity and the lightbulb. Time were definitely changing, especially within the social classes of America. The changes effected the classes in many different ways: the wealthy suddenly became wealthier, and the middle class moved up in the ranks, as well. The s ame could not be said for the lower classes, though, particularly the working-class. For them, times were tough, poverty was widespread and conditions were unsafe in almost any environment they inhabited. Despite the industrial revolution being a positive for many of the social classes in America, it was very detrimental to the working-class in that it lead to urbanization and overcrowding of cities, many people taking jobs in dangerous factories, and a seemingly disorganized family life. It wasShow MoreRelatedThe Transition Of Medieval And Modern Times1235 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestransition of Medieval to Modern happened over a long period of time. The middle ages marked a dark time in EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s history, and the people were anxious to get out. The Renaissance began, and art emerged to create a brighter society. During the Reformation, the country shifted away from the Roman Catholic Church, and many Protestant religions emerged. The Scientific Revolution also marked a change in medical to modern by creating new ways to look at the world and mathematics. The Age of Discovery markedRead More The Human Condition: Freedom Expropriated by Corporations Essay903 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesuseful for looking at America today. American citizens have been displaced from the Arendtian model of the modern age. The American government has lost its freedom by having been expropriated from the realm of freedom in the vita activa. Capitalism and large corporations now wield the most power and economic influence in America today. This explanation has become increasingly more appropriate in describing the role of oil corporations in America, in light of the actions America has taken since theRead MoreArgumentative Essay On Arranged Marriage1347 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesyou desire. 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Before they become significant box-office phenomena and debut for TV serious, superheroes were short stories in printed media. Supermen, Batman, Captain America, Wonder Woman Ã¢â¬ ¦were comic books superheroes. The idea of superheroes was long existed. However, as many comic books historians agreed, The Phantom, published in February 17, 1936, is considered to be the first comic book costumed hero. Since then, comic books superheroes were booming. In the mid-1940sRead MoreAmerican Comics And Japanese Manga1048 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesI. Abstract When mention comics, everyone can think of America comics and Japanese manga. They are two big parts of world comics and represent western and eastern comics. So they will have some differences in style, content and development. America comics is mainly about superheroes and reflects individualistic heroism. Japanese manga has many genres. II. Introduction Comics is a kind of medium that uses drawing and writing to tell a story. Cartooning is the most common mean in comics. ComicsRead MoreThe Persian Wars Were Significant For World History1441 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Greco-Persian Wars were significant for world history because they paved the way for the rise of democracy, emerging cultural advances, and formed the structure of the Eastern-Western divide in later civilizations, which eventually shapes the modern world. Initially, the wars began about 500 B.C.E. and lasted until 448 B.C.E. Ã¢â¬Å"Notably not all Greeks fought against the Persians; some were neutral, and others were allied with Persia.Ã¢â¬ The conflicts emerged after the Persian conquest by CyrusRead MoreEvolution of the American Short Story1077 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWhen short stories started to be written in the American Romanticism Time Period, they were very different from the ones today, but they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t change abruptly. Over the different periods like the American Romanticism, Dark Romantics, Realism, Moderns, and Contemporary, the events changed the style of writing and the characteristics of the way the authors in these times wrote their stories. The authors in these eras started to revolutionize the way they wrote according to occurrences in that particularRead MoreEssay about Change and Continuity in the Guilded Age1194 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Change and Continuity in the Gilded Age Emergence of Modern America nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Ã¢â¬Å"Every day things change, but basically they stay the same.Ã¢â¬ -Dave Matthews Change and continuity are two major principles of life. They can easily be applied to history because their application accurately portrays the circumstances, and characterizes the era of interest. Merriam-Webster defines continuity as an uninterrupted connection, succession, or union, or an uninterrupted
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